Heat oven to 425°F and adjust oven rack to middle position, and line a large, rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper.
Cut 2 sticks (1 cup) of butter into 1/2-inch pieces; set aside in the fridge.
Add flour, baking powder, salt, sugar and baking soda to the bowl of a food processor. Pulse the flour mixture for 2 seconds (just to incorporate).
Add the cold cut butter pieces (1 cup) to the flour mixture and pulse until the largest butter pieces are pea size.
Pour the flour/butter mixture into a large bowl. Slowly drizzle the cold buttermilk over the top while continuously tossing the mixture with a fork to incorporate.
Lightly knead the mixture just a few times until shaggy dough forms (the dough will look dry). Transfer the dough the a lightly floured work surface and gently pat into a 1-inch thick square.
Cut the square into 4 equal sections and stack the 4 sections together. Press the dough into a 1-inch thick rectangle and trim a very thin border around the sides of the rectangle. This will create the clean edges needed to see the layers.
Cut the dough into 12 equal squares (think of a 4x3 grid).
Place the biscuits, 2-inches apart, onto the prepared baking sheet. Freeze the biscuits 10-15 minutes.
While the biscuits are in the freezer, melt the remaining ¼ cup of butter.
Brush the biscuit tops with melted butter and place in the oven.
Reduce the temperature to 400°F and bake 20-22 minutes or until golden brown and the internal temperature of a middle biscuit reaches 205-208 degrees F.
Transfer cooked biscuits to a cooling rack and serve immediately.
*Note for making up to 1 month ahead: Make the biscuits as directed and freeze, uncovered, on a baking sheet until frozen. Transfer the frozen biscuits to a freezer bag. Bake as directed 24-28 minutes or until golden. Do NOT thaw before baking.